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Penicillium


Penicillium              Print PDF

Natural Habitat

  • Soil
  • Seed
  • Cereal crops

Suitable Substrates in the Indoor Environment

  • Foods (blue mold on cereals, fruits, vegetables, dried foods)
  • House dust
  • Fabrics
  • Leather
  • Wallpaper
  • Wallpaper glue

Water Activity

  • Aw=0.78-0.86

Mode of Dissemination

  • Wind
  • Insects

Allergenic Potential

  • Type I (hay fever, asthma)
  • Type III (hypersensitivity)

Potential Opportunist or Pathogen

  • Penicilliosis

Industrial Uses

  • P. chrysogenum for the antibiotic penicillin
  • P. griseofulvum for the antibiotic griseofulvin a
  • P. roquefortii for Roquefort cheese
  • P. camemberti for Camembert cheese
  • Brie, Gorgonzola, and Danish Blue cheese are also the products of Penicillium
  • Used to cure ham and salami
  • Production of organic acids such as fumaric, oxalic, gluconic, and gallic

Potential Toxins Produced

  • Citrinin
  • Citreoviridin
  • Cyclopiazonic acid
  • Fumitremorgen B
  • Grisiofulvin
  • Janthitrems
  • Mycophenolic acid
  • Paxilline
  • Penitrem A
  • Penicillic acid
  • Ochratoxins
  • Roquefortine C
  • Secalonic acid D
  • Verruculogen
  • Verrucosidin
  • Viomellein
  • Viridicatumtoxin
  • Xanthomegnin

Other Comments

  • Penicillium is one of the most common genera of fungi

References

  • Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W., Blackwell, M. 1996. John Wiley and Sons