Customer Service

LABConnect™ - Online Results & More

Tutorial | Create Account | Login

Sampling Guides

Title Endotoxin Sampling Guide

ENDOTOXIN SAMPLING GUIDE

PROCEDURE FOR ENDOTOXIN SAMPLING

Endotoxins are molecules that have certain characteristic toxic effects. They are now recognized as a class of compounds found in the outer membrane of certain (``gram-negative") bacteria. Since these gram-negative bacteria are widespread in the environment, so are endotoxins. High levels have been reported from a variety of environments, such as cotton mills, agriculture or wastewater treatment facilities, industrial washwater mists, and contaminated room humidifiers, where water and gram-negative bacteria can be expected to be present. The most important kinds of reservoirs are recirculated water-based fluids that produce aerosols.

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES
Air samples are collected on endotoxin-free membrane filters, stored desiccated wherever possible, or stored at 4°C. Endotoxin analysis can be done on air, water, or bulk specimens.

CAUTION
There are no accepted threshold values, so relative value comparisons have to be made between the suspect area, and a non-suspect one under similar environmental conditions. Since endotoxin levels may be significant in outside air, the latter may not be suitable for background levels, especially in environments known to have high levels of gram-negative bacteria (see above, 1st paragraph). All sampling utensils must be certified endotoxin-free, and PVC and polypropylene materials cannot be used due to their affinity and binding with endotoxin.

MATERIALS
Fluids and Bulk samples: Collect in endotoxin-free (preferably glass, alternatively polystyrene) containers. For Air Sampling: Low-flow pump, Rotameter Flexible tubing Endotoxin-free polystyrene cassettes with 37mm diameter 0.4 µm polycarbonate membrane filters and AP40 glass-fiber backing pads. These must be specially treated to remove all endotoxins. Sterile surgical gloves should be worn for all samples.

SAMPLING PROCEDURE
1.For air sampling: a)Caution must be taken to avoid breathing on, touching, or otherwise exposing the sampling containers to human contamination. b)For indoor sampling, ensure that all doors and windows are closed. c)Calibrate pump to 1.5 liters/minute d)Using gloves, connect cassette to pump with the red-capped end toward the pump. Collect air samples for 4 hours per sample. e)Disconnect cassette and replace the protective covering back on both the inlet and outlet of the cassette, and wrap entire cassette in original packing and seal with tape.

2.For fluids and bulk specimens: Collect specimen in an endotoxin-free container.

3.For all matrices: a)Label with sample information. b)Complete an EMSL Chain of Custody (COC), available on the website (www.emsl.com), detailing client name and information, project name or number, sample #, and a description of the area. c)Ship samples to EMSL Analytical, Inc. as soon as possible. Fluid samples should be shipped on ice.

QUALITY CONTROL SUGGESTIONS
1.Multiple specimens need to be collected at a site in order to compare a possibly affected area with an unaffected one.

2.The containers used for test materials must be neither cracked nor broken, and with the sterile packing material still intact.

REFERENCES
1.Milton, Donald K. ``Bioaerosols " (CRC Press Inc., 1995) 77-86. 2.SKC Inc., 863 Valley View Road, Eighty Four, PA 15330. ``Procedure for Collection of Air Samples for Endotoxin Testing."

Ann Arbor, MI - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-4Atlanta, GA - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-1Baton Rouge, LA - NVLAP Lab Code 200375-0Beltsville, MD - NVLAP Lab Code 200293-0Boston, MA - NVLAP Lab Code 101147-0Buffalo, NY - NVLAP Lab Code 200056-0Calgary, Alberta - NVLAP Lab Code 500100-0Carle Place, NY - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-10Charlotte, NC - NVLAP Lab Code 200841-0Chicago, IL - NVLAP Lab Code 200399-0Corporate - Cinnaminson, NJ - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-0Dallas, TX - NVLAP Lab Code 600111-0Denver, CO - NVLAP Lab Code 200828-0EMSL Canada - Montreal -- Quebec - NVLAP Lab Code 201052-0EMSL Canada -- Toronto - NVLAP Lab Code 200877-0EMSL Canada Inc. -- Ottawa - NVLAP Lab Code 201040-0Fort Lauderdale - NVLAP Lab Code 500085-0Houston, TX - NVLAP Lab Code 102106-0Huntington Beach, CA - NVLAP Lab Code 101384-0Indianapolis, IN - NVLAP Lab Code 200188-0Kernersville, NC - NVLAP Lab Code 102104-0Las Vegas, NV - NVLAP Lab Code 600140-0Miami, FL - NVLAP Lab Code 200204-0Minneapolis IH Lab (EAST) - NVLAP Lab Code 101234-0Minneapolis, MN (WEST) - NVLAP Lab Code 200019-0New York, NY - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-9Orlando, FL - NVLAP Lab Code 101151-0Pasadena, CA - NVLAP Lab Code 200232-0Phoenix, AZ - NVLAP Lab Code 200811-0Piscataway, NJ - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-2Plymouth Meeting, PA - NVLAP Lab Code 200699-0Raleigh, NC - NVLAP Lab Code 200671-0Rochester, NY - NVLAP Lab Code 600183-0S. Portland, ME - NVLAP Lab Code 500094-0Salem, NH - NVLAP Lab Code 201051-0San Diego, CA - NVLAP Lab Code 200855-0San Leandro, CA - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-3Seattle, WA - NVLAP Lab Code 200613-0St. Louis, MO - NVLAP Lab Code 200742-0Tampa, FL - NVLAP Lab Code 600215-0Vancouver, BC - NVLAP Lab Code 201068-0Wallingford, CT - NVLAP Lab Code 200700-0West Palm Beach, FL - NVLAP Lab Code 600206-0Weymouth, MA - NVLAP Lab Code 600217-0